Cholera is an infectious intestinal disease with massive diarrhea and severe dehydration. It is caused by a specific bacteria, the vibrio's. The disease occurs mainly in poor countries.
Prerequisite for its spread are poor hygienic conditions in which sewage is used as drinking water. Mainly ill and malnourished people weakened by other infections. The vibrio's can be detected in stool samples, rectal swabs and vomit.
In industrialized countries, the physician notified immediately of suspected cholera bacteriological laboratory, which has a cholera emergency cutlery. To open an account immediately a culture. In areas where cholera the frequent occurrence of severe, watery diarrhea should raise the suspicion always quick to cholera.
The causative agent of classical cholera, also called Asiatic cholera, is a rod-shaped bacterium, Vibrio cholerae. Since the comma bacillus is curved, it is also called Vibrio comma. At the upper pole of the bacterium, a scourge that makes it very portable liable.
The cholera vibrio's infect only humans, not animals. The main sources of infection are the feces of infected persons and patients. In the transmission of Vibrio water is of particular importance. Infection occurs through fecal contaminated (contaminated) water, through contaminated food or by eating contaminated shellfish from bays.
After that, the cholera vibrio's multiply rapidly in the stomach, especially in the upper small intestine. There they produce a poison that cholera toxin. This poison makes the lining of the small intestine to swell and leads to severe salt and water losses through the intestinal mucosa.
In general, the risk of cholera is subject to seasonal fluctuations. In tropical countries, the risk is higher during the rainy season in southern Europe in the summer.
There we submit common symptoms of disease.
- Vomiting without nausea.
- Numerous highly liquid diarrhea.
- Dehydration with hoarseness and calf cramps.
- Sunken eyes, wrinkled skin and Arrhythmia's.
- Blood pressure with pulse racing.
- Reduce the amount of urine.
- Drop in body temperature and Unconsciousness.
Treatment and therapy
Since fluid loss and dehydration progressing rapidly, must be started immediately with the treatment. The immediate replacement of fluid and electrolytes is lifesaving.
1. If the blood pressure already fallen significantly, electrolyte solutions must be fed through a vein. The infusions of the first liter of electrolyte solution should be administered within ten minutes slower. During the fluid replacement, the diarrhea can temporarily increase further. As soon as possible the patient should drink normally again.
2. If clean drinking water can not be provided in sufficient quantities, chlorine or iodine tablets can be distributed for water disinfection. The most important measures remain use only boiled water and find the source of infection. Long term only helps the construction of separate water and sewerage systems.
3. In the industrialized countries are ill and all persons for whom a disease is suspected, isolated in a single room and treated with antibiotics. The secretions of the affected disinfected before disposal. Again, finding the source of infection has a significant meaning.