Malaria (ague, swamp fever) is a tropical disease. Cause of this disease are tiny parasites, Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Below know more about symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
It is an infectious tropical disease with rhythmically recurring bouts of fever (intermittent fever) or irregular course of the fever. It is the most prevalent tropical disease and occurs in all warm, humid areas of the tropics and subtropics, especially in the big forest and savanna areas of Africa.
The causative agent, Plasmodium called unicellular parasites are transmitted by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles.
Cause are protozoan parasites (Plasmodium). They infest and damage blood cells and internal organs. Be transferring these parasites by the Anopheles mosquito.
4 different Plasmodien types evoke 3 different courses of disease. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale cause the 3 day fever (tertian malaria) and Plasmodium falciparum (malaria tropica).
Malaria affects all age groups, but the symptoms are usually particularly strong and complications more common in children. But typical symptoms are:-
Suddenly onset, irregular fever (3 days or 4 days fever Fever with chills and sweats)
- Head, joint and back pain
- Spleen and liver swelling / Ruptured spleen, Anemia
- Bleeding disorders, Cardiac arrhythmias
- Seizures and coma, Pneumonia and Renal failure.
In a lighter course of Mefloquine, Halofantrine or Ccloroquine (as long as no chloroquine resistance is present) may be administered. These drugs are also prescribed for the prevention (malaria prophylaxis).
The complicated Falciparum malaria treated with quinine. Patient requires intensive medical treatment, so that life threatening complications are detected quickly and life saving measures such as mechanical ventilation can be performed.
In addition, the drug Prophylaxis is essential. Mefloquine is currently seen as the most effective medication, but it may cause side effects.
For areas with low malaria risk, it is sufficient to take an emergency drug that is taken with sudden onset of fever (stand by medication).